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HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR
High quality cassava flour is simple unfermented cassava flour. The desire to reduce dependence on importation and conservation of foreign exchange has increased the Federal Government’s drive to source for local alternatives to partially or fully substitute imported goods. Wheat flour substitution becomes utmost priority especially with the price of wheat in the international market is becoming unbearable.
Research institutes such as International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO) has for years researched on developing processed based technology to mechanize and produce high quality cassava floor. This has led to the development and of the process technology for production of High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) suitable for partial substitution of wheat.
FIIRO has demonstrated that bread and confectioneries baked with 10% cassava flour inclusion in wheat flour compared favourably with those baked with 100% wheat flour.
The basic unit operations in cassava flour production from fresh cassava roots are:
Sorting and Weighing: The tubers are sorted to select the wholesome roots for production. The tubers are then weighed.
Peeling: The weighed cassava roots are peeled manually to reduce high peeling loss associated with mechanical peelers due to irregular shape of cassava root.
Washing: Peeled root is washed with sufficient quantity of potable water to remove sand, dirt and other contaminants.
Grating: The root is grated to cassava mash.
Detoxification: The cassava mash is detoxified mechanically in a mash agitator for a period of time to eliminate the toxic hydrogen cyanide present in cassava.
Dewatering: The moisture content of the mash is reduced mechanically to about 50% to prepare for drying operation.
Granulation: The resultant cake from dewatering process is disintegrated into fine granules using hammer mill.
Drying: Granulation process is followed by drying operation to produce cassava flour of desired quality.
Milling: The flour obtained is milled to desired particle size.
Sieving and Packaging: The flour is sieved and packaged appropriately.
RAW MATERIAL, SUPPLIES AND UTILITIES
Fresh cassava root is the only raw material for production of Cassava Flour. Cassava is grown in almost all the states in Nigeria and Nigeria has been rated the highest producer of cassava in the world. The major item of supplies requirement include factory wears (overall, hand gloves, factory shoe, nose mask), cleansing agents, disinfectants, etc. Electricity, diesel (for generator and project truck), Low Pore Fuel Oil (LPFO) for firing the flash dryer, and water are the major utilities requirement.
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
The major equipment for production of Cassava Starch are:
1. Hammer Mill Grater,
2. Starch Extractor,
3. Sedimentation Tank,
4. Hydraulic Press,
6. Flash Dryer,
7. Packaging Machine and Weighing Machine.
These can be fabricated at FIIRO. The cost of the equipment with capacity of 4 tonnes of Cassava Starch per day is N11, 570,410.00. This includes the cost of installation.
Both skilled and unskilled labour is required for this project. A total of about 42 workers are required for production, marketing and administration.
As estimated by FIIREO, The estimated total initial investment is N31,185,650.00. This consists of the initial fixed capital N23,316,360.00 (including factory building, machinery and equipment, generator, project vehicle, office furniture and equipment and bore hole), initial working capital N5,602,070.00 and pre-production expenses N2,267,220.00.
Two plots of land are adequate for the project.
Production Days/Week - 6
Production Weeks/Annum - 50
Production Days/Annum - 300
Production Volume/Day - 4 Tonnes
Production Volume/Annum - 1,200 Tonnes
Input Output Ratio - 5:1
Total Revenue 71,400.00
Total Production Cost 58,871.00
Gross Profit before Tax 12,528.98
Tax @ 30% 3,758.69
NET PROFIT 8,770.29
Gross Profit Sales 17.60%
Net Profit to Sales 12.300%
Return on Investment (Year 1) 30.40%
Payback Period 1.90 Years
Net Present Value @ 25% N3, 194.17
The figures presented above is credited to Federal Institute Of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO)
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[i] Culled: Material made available by Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi (FIIRO)
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